Jakab Antal Nr.
,,Cultura e finalitatea tuturor societăților" (Eugen Lovinescu)
Harghita Telefon: Rodica Iorga, Prof. Gianina Hreniuc, Prof. Mihaela Apetroei, Prof. Profesor docent univ.
Alba Profesor ec. Fraser, N. Lawrence, D. Hume, dintre cei de al doilea tip, pe R.
Mărginită la est şi aproape respinsă spre vest ele masa greoaie a Imperiului otoman, o masă lipsită de forţă, deoarece nu dispune de oameni şi este măcinată pe dinăuntru, dar care continuă să facă impresie pînă la bătălia de la Kahlenberg 12 septembrie Tot la est se află Polonia încă neprecizată şi o Rusie care apare vlăguită după Vremea Tulburărilor Izolată de pădurea care înghite necontenit luminişurile şi de stepa imensă pentru care cazacii încă metode de corectare a vederii spectaculosului se luptă cu nomazii musulmani conduşi de hani, Rusia pe la poate fi oare considerată ca făcînd parte din Europa? Europa înseamnă Imperiul spaniol a cărui întinsă zonă de influenţă am delimitat-o anevoie a-supra unui număr de douăzeci şi cinci pînă la treizeci de milioane de suflete, înseamnă Franţa concentrată în jurul celor cincisprezece pînă la şaisprezece milioane ele oameni, înseamnă Imperiul Romano-German complicat şi dezbinat, înseamnă Olanda, Anglia şi Scandinavia pornită pe calea afirmării. Preţul plătit a fost mare, plătit statului şi mai cu seamă conjuncturii.
Mosteller, Stochastic models for learning, Wiley, N. Theodorescu, Random processes and learning, Springer, Berlin, Press, Cambridge, Mass. Uesaka, T. Aizawa, T. Ebara, K. Quantum physics and levels of Reality The major cultural impact of the quantum physics has certainly raised questions for the contemporary philosophical dogma of the existence of a single level of Reality .
Quantum physics caused us to discover that abstraction is not simply an intermediary between us and Nature, a tool for describing reality, but rather, one of the constituent parts of Nature. In quantum physics, mathematical formalization is inseparable from experience. It resists in its own way by its simultaneous concern for internal consistency, and the need to integrate experimental data without destroying that self-consistency.
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In so far as Nature participates in the being of the world one must ascribe an ontological dimension to the concept of Reality. Nature is an immense, inexhaustible source of the unknown which justifies the very existence of science.
Ce înseamnæ autonomia azi? Paris 5—7, Cluj-Napoca Tel. Pentru a væ expune aceste lucruri din propriul meu punct de vedere, va trebui sæ trec totuøi printr-o istorie øi printr-o teorie care vor pærea, uneori, cæ nu duc nicæieri în mod special. Bell øi Fry au moøtenit o certitudine din filosofia moralæ a lui G. Gombrich, Symbolic Images, London, Phaidon,
Reality is not only a social construction, the consensus of a collectivity, or an intersubjective agreement. It also has a trans-subjective dimension, to the extent that one simple experimental fact can ruin the most beautiful scientific theory.
No one has succeeded in finding a mathematical formalism which permits the rigorous passage from one world to another.
,,Cultura e finalitatea tuturor societăților” (E. Lovinescu)
Semantic glosses, tautological definitions or approximations are unable to replace a rigorous mathematical formalism. There are even strong mathematical indications that the continuous passage from the quantum world to the macrophysical world would never be possible. But there is nothing catastrophic about this. That does not prevent the two worlds from co-existing.
Levels of organization do not presuppose a break with fundamental concepts : several levels of organization appear at one and the same metode de corectare a vederii spectaculosului of Reality. The levels of organization correspond to different structurings of the same fundamental laws. For example, Marxist economy and classical physics belong to one and the same level of Reality.
Noi metode de corectare a vederii
The existence of different levels of Reality has been affirmed by different traditions and civilizations, but these affirmations were founded on religious dogma or on the exploration of the interior universe. But these thinkers, pioneers in the exploration of a multi-dimensional and multi-referential reality, have been marginalized by academic philosophers and misunderstood by the majority of physicists, enclosed in their respective specializations.
The view I am expressing here is totally conform to the one of Heisenberg, Pauli and Bohr. This classification has a subtle ground : the closer and closer consultarea unui neuro-oftalmolog pediatru between the Subject and the Object.
As we shall see in the following, the notion of levels of Reality will lead us to a general philosophical understanding of the nature of indeterminacy. If there was only one region or level of reality, it was impossible to conceive what means a true, irreducible indeterminacy, like the quantum one.
The intellectual scandal provoked by quantum mechanics consists in the fact that the pairs of contradictories that it generates are actually metode de corectare a vederii spectaculosului contradictory when they are analyzed through the interpretative filter of classical logic.
This logic is founded on three axioms : 1. Under the assumption of the existence of a single level of Reality, the second and third axioms are obviously equivalent.
His philosophy, which takes quantum physics as its point of departure, has been marginalized by physicists and philosophers. Curiously, on metode de corectare a vederii spectaculosului other hand, it has had a powerful albeit underground influence among psychologists, sociologists, artists, and historians of religions.
If one remains at a single level of Reality, all manifestation appears as a struggle between two contradictory elements example : wave A and corpuscle non-A.
The third dynamic, that of the T-state, is exercised at another level of Reality, where that which appears to be disunited wave or corpuscle is in fact united quantonand that which appears contradictory is perceived as non-contradictory. It is the projection of T on one and the same level of Reality which produces the appearance of mutually exclusive, antagonistic pairs A and non-A.
A single level of Reality can only create antagonistic oppositions. A third term, let us call it T0, which is situated on the same level of Reality as that of the opposites A and non-A, can not accomplish their reconciliation. On the contrary, each of the three terms metode de corectare a vederii spectaculosului the Hegelian triad succeeds the former in time. This is why the Hegelian triad is incapable of accomplishing the reconciliation of opposites, whereas the triad of the included middle is capable of it.
The Hegelian triad would never explain the nature of indeterminacy.
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One also sees the great dangers of misunderstanding engendered by the common enough confusion made between the axiom of the excluded middle and the axiom of non-contradiction. This is a formal logic, just as any other formal logic : its rules are derived by means of a relatively simple mathematical formalism.
One can see why the logic of the included middle is not simply a metaphor, like some kind of arbitrary ornament for classical logic, which would permit adventurous incursions into the domain of complexity. The logic of the included middle does not abolish the logic of the excluded middle : it only constrains its sphere of validity. The logic metode de corectare a vederii spectaculosului the excluded middle is certainly valid for relatively simple situations. On the contrary, the patologia vederii of the excluded middle is harmful in complex, transdisciplinary cases.
For me, the problem of indeterminacy is precisely belonging to this class of cases. This proposal is not enough, by itself, to justify a new vision of the world. We must first of all answer many questions in the most rigorous possible way. What is the nature metode de corectare a vederii spectaculosului the theory which can describe the passage from one level of Reality to another?
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Is there truly a coherence, a unity of the totality of levels of Reality? What is the role of the subject-observer of Reality in the dynamics of the possible unity of all the levels of Reality?
Is there a level of Reality which is privileged in relation to all other levels?
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What is the role of reason in the dynamics of the possible unity of knowledge? What is the predictive power of the new model of Reality in the sphere of reflection and action? Finally, is understanding of the present world possible? The considerations which follow do not depend on whether or not this number is finite or infinite. For the sake of clarity, let us suppose that this number is infinite.
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Two adjacent levels are connected by the logic of the included middle in the sense that the T-state present at a certain level is connected to a pair of contradictories A and non-A at the immediately adjacent level.
The axiom of non-contradiction is thereby respected. Does this fact signify that we can obtain a complete theory, which will be able to account for all known and forthcoming results?
There is certainly a coherence between different levels of Reality, at least in the natural world. A flow of information is transmitted in a coherent manner from one level of Reality to another level of Reality in our physical metode de corectare a vederii spectaculosului.
The logic of the included middle is capable of describing the coherence between the levels of Reality by an iterative process defined by the following stages : 1. A pair of contradictories A, non-A situated at a certain level of reality is unified by a T-state situated at a contiguous level of Reality ; 2.
The iterative process continues indefinitely until all the levels of Reality, known or conceivable, are exhausted. This structure has considerable consequences for the theory of knowledge because it implies the impossibility of a complete theory, closed in upon itself. This signifies that starting from a certain number of mutually exclusive pairs one can construct a new theory which eliminates contradictions at a certain level of Reality, but this theory is only temporary because it inevitably leads, under the joint pressure of theory and experience, to the discovery of new levels of contradictories, situated at a new level of Reality.
In turn this theory will therefore be replaced by still more unified theories as new levels of Reality are discovered.
Share Notă: acest post a fost scris în data de 4 Octombrie și a primit un update în data de 25 Aprilie de la punctul 16 la Nu am învățat aceste lucruri noi între timp, doar că le-am omis în prima variantă și m-am decis să le includ la 6 luni distanță. Plus că am adăugat poze noi din Brașov Du-te direct la punctul 16 Nu mă consider brașovean.
This process will continue indefinitely without ever resulting in a completely unified theory. The axiom of non-contradiction is increasingly strengthened during this process.
Finer matter penetrates coarser matter, just as quantum matter penetrates macrophysical matter, but the reverse is not true. This orienting arrow is associated with the discovery of more and more general, unifying, and encompassing laws. First of all it does not only concern the field of arithmetic but also all mathematics which includes arithmetic. Now, obviously the mathematics which underlies theoretical physics include arithmetic.
This means that all research for a complete physical theory is illusory. In fact, the search for an axiomatic system leading to a complete theory without undecidable or contradictory results marks at once the apex and the starting point of the decline of classical thought.
The difficulty and extreme subtlety of its demonstration explains why this theorem has taken a certain time to be understood within the mathematical community.
Today, it has scarcely begun to penetrate the world of physicists. But these two levels are different ; from the point of view of our experiences, representations, descriptions, images, and mathematical formalizations, absolute transparence functions like a veil.
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Quite simply, the non-resistance of this zone of absolute transparence is due to the limitations of our bodies and of our sense organs, limitations which apply regardless of the instruments of measure used to extend these sense organs. To claim that there is an infinite human knowledge which excludes any zone of non-resistancewhile simultaneously affirming the limitations of our body and our sense organs, seems to us a feat of linguistic sleight of hand. A level of Reality is what it is because all the other levels exist at the same computer și viziune presiune intraoculară. This Principle of Relativity is what originates a new perspective on religion, politics, art, education, and social life.